Exploring E-leadership Behaviour of Sri Lankan Small and Medium Enterprises

Main Article Content

E. A. G. Sumanasiri

Abstract

This paper explores the e-leadership behaviours of Sri Lankan Small and Medium Entreprises and the barriers to e-leadership in SME sector. To explore these research objectives a qualitative method was used with 23 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with owners of fast-growing SMEs in Sri Lanka. To understand the effective e-leadership behaviours the study used Gary Yukl’s Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behaviours model. Findings confirmed that most SME leaders use ‘Internet of things’ in performing their leadership roles. Among the four effective e-leadership behaviours described by Gary Yukl, most SME leaders use e-leadership for change-oriented decision making while relationship-oriented leadership behaviours became the least important. Theoretical contributions, limitations and future research directions are discussed in the concluding section of the paper.

Keywords:
e-leadership, effective e-leadership behaviours, small and medium enterprises, Sri Lanka.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sumanasiri, E. A. G. (2020). Exploring E-leadership Behaviour of Sri Lankan Small and Medium Enterprises. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 25(6), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i630213
Section
Original Research Article

References

Manyika JA. Future that works: AI automation employment and productivity. McKinsey Global Institute Research, Tech. Rep; 2017.

Nordbäck ES, Espinosa JA. Effective coordination of shared leadership in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems. 2019;36(1):321-50.

Charlier SD, Stewart GL, Greco LM, Reeves CJ. Emergent leadership in virtual teams: A multilevel investigation of individual communication and team dispersion antecedents. The Leadership Quarterly. 2016;27(5):745-64.

Avolio BJ, Kahai SS. Adding the "E" to E-leadership: How it may impact your leadership. Organizational Dynamics; 2003.

Avolio BJ, Sosik JJ, Kahai SS, Baker B. E-leadership: Re-examining transformations in leadership source and transmission. The Leadership Quarterly. 2014;25(1):105-31.

Avolio BJ, Kahai S, Dumdum R, Sivasubramaniam N. Virtual teams: Implications for e-leadership and team development; 2001.

Van Wart M, Roman A, Wang X, Liu C. Operationalizing the definition of e-leadership: Identifying the elements of e-leadership. International Review of Administrative Sciences. 2019;85(1):80-97.

Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO, Weber TJ. Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology. 2009;60:421-49.

Champy J. Does leadership change in a web 2.0 world? HBR Blog Network. 2010;4.

Sutton R. What every new generation of bosses has to learn. HBR Blog Network. 2010;9.

Saleem H, Uddin MK, Habib-ur-Rehman S, Saleem S, Aslam AM. Strategic data driven approach to improve conversion rates and sales performance of E-commerce websites. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (IJSER); 2019.

Daniel EM, Grimshaw DJ. An exploratory comparison of electronic commerce adoption in large and small enterprises. Journal of Information Technology. 2002;17(3):133-47.

Van Wart M, Roman A, Wang X, Liu C. Integrating ICT adoption issues into (e-) leadership theory. Telematics and Informatics. 2017;34(5):527-37.

Gunawardana KD. E-commerce in small and medium enterprises in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Socio-technology and Knowledge Development (IJSKD). 2018;10(2):54-68.

Taylor P. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adoption by small and medium enterprises in developing countries: The effects of leader, organizational and market environment factors. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom. 2019;7(5).

Belitski M, Liversage B. E-Leadership in small and medium-sized enterprises in the developing world. Technology Innovation Management Review. 2019;9(1):64-74.

Li W, Liu K, Belitski M, Ghobadian A, O'Regan N. E-Leadership through strategic alignment: An empirical study of small-and medium-sized enterprises in the digital age. Journal of Information Technology. 2016;31(2):185-206.

Hüsing T, Dashja E, Gareis K, Korte WB, Stabenow T, Markus P. E-leadership skills for small and medium sized enterprises: Final Report. Brussels: European Commission; 2015.

Rogerson CM. Successful SMEs in South Africa: The case of clothing producers in the Witwatersrand. Development Bank Southern Africa. 2000;17(5):37–41.

Allen IE, Seaman J. Grade level: Tracking online education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group. Babson College, 231 Forest Street, Babson Park, MA 02457; 2015.

Zheng Y, Schachter HL, Holzer M. The impact of government form on e-participation: A study of New Jersey municipalities. Government Information Quarterly. 2014;31(4):653-9.

Norris DF, Moon MJ. Advancing e‐government at the grassroots: Tortoise or hare? Public Administration Review. 2005;65(1):64-75.

Moon MJ, Lee J, Roh CY. The evolution of internal IT applications and e-government studies in public administration: Research themes and methods. Administration & Society. 2014;46(1):3-6.

Williams R, Packham GP, Thomas BC, Thompson P. Small business sales growth and internationalization links to web site functions in the United Kingdom. In Thomas BC, Simmons GJ. (Eds.), E-commerce Adoption and Small Business in the Global Marketplace: Tools for Optimization Hershey, PA: IGI Global. 2010;139–173.

Dwivedi YK, Papazafeiropoulo A, Scupola A. SMEs'e‐commerce adoption: Perspec-tives from Denmark and Australia. Journal of Enterprise Information Management; 2009.

Simmons G, Armstrong G, Durkin M. An exploration of small business website optimization: Enablers, influencers and an assessment approach. International Small Business Journal. 2011;29(5):534–561.
DOI: 10.1177/0266242610369945

Cashman JGA, Obit JH, Bolongkikit J, Tanakinjal GH. An exploratory research of the usage level of E-commerce among SMEs. Malaysia: West Coast of Sabah; 2004.

Sterrett C, Shah A. Going global on the information super highway. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal. 1998; 63(1):43–47.

Stockdale R, Standing C. Benefit and barriers of electronic marketplace participation: An SME perspective. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 2004;17(4):301–311.
DOI: 10.1108/17410390410548715

Damanpour F, Damanpour JA. E-business e-commerce evolution: Perspective and strategy. Managerial Finance. 2001;27(7): 16–33.
DOI: 10.1108/03074350110767268

Dholakia U, Kshetri N. Factors impacting the adoption of the internet among SMEs. Small Business Economics. 2004;23(4): 311–322.
DOI: 10.1023/B:SBEJ.0000032036.90353

Lawrence KL. Factors inhibiting the utilization of electronic commerce facilities in Tasmanian Small-to-medium sized enterprises. In 8th Australasian Conference on Information Systems. 1997;587-597.

Lewis R, Cockrill A. Going global—remaining local: The impact of e-commerce on small retail firms in Wales. International Journal of Information Management. 2002;22(3):195-209.

Bharati P, Chaudhury A. Studying the current status: Examining the extent and nature of adoption of technologies by micro, small and medium sized manufacturing firms in the greater Boston area. Communications of the ACM. 2006;49(10): 88–93.
DOI: 10.1145/1164394.1164400

Cohen WM, Levinthal DA. Innovation and learning: The two faces of R&D. The Economic Journal. 1989;99(397):569-96.

Zahra SA, George G. The net-enabled business innovation cycle and the evolution of dynamic capabilities. Information Systems Research. 2002; 13(2):147-50.

Cloete E, Courtney S, Fintz J. Small businesses acceptance and adoption of e-commerce in the Western-Cape Province of South-Africa. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2002;10(4):1– 13.
DOI: 10.1002/j.1681-4835.2002.tb00062

Sadowski BM, Maitland C, Van Dongen J. Strategic use of the Internet by small-and medium-sized companies: An exploratory study. Information Economics and Policy. 2002;14(1):75-93.

Daniel E, Grimshaw D. An exploratory comparison of electronic commerce adoption in large and small enterprises. Journal of Information Technology. 2002;17(3):133–147.
DOI: 10.1080/0268396022000018409

Coates J. The HR implications of emerging business models. Employment Relations Today, (Winter). 2001;1–8.

Bengtsson M, Boter H, Vanyushyn V. Integrating the internet and marketing operations: A study of antecedents in firms of different size. International Small Business Journal. 2007;25(1):27-48.

Gono S, Harindranath G, Özcan GB. The adoption and impact of ICT in South African SMEs. Strategic Change. 2016;25(6):717-34.

Yukl G. Effective leadership behavior: What we know and what questions need more attention. Academy of Management Perspectives. 2012;26(4):66-85.

Yukl G, Gordon A, Taber T. A hierarchical taxonomy of leadership behavior: Integrating a half century of behavior research. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 2002;9(1):15-32.

Audretsch DB, Belitski M. Entrepreneurial ecosystems in cities: Establishing the framework conditions. The Journal of Technology Transfer. 2017;42(5):1030-51.

Belitski M, Chowdhury F, Desai S. Taxes, corruption and entry. Small Business Economics. 2016;47(1):201-16.

Wolcott P, Kamal M, Qureshi S. Meeting the challenges of ICT adoption by micro-enterprises. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 2008;21(6): 616–632.
DOI: 10.1108/17410390810911212

Lee CS. An analytical framework for evaluating e-commerce business models and strategies. Internet Research. 2001;11(4):349-59.

Chaffey D. E-business and E-commerce management. Harlow: Prentice Hall; 2002.

Galloway L, Mochrie R. The use of ICT in rural firms: A policy-orientated literature review. Info. 2005;7(3):33-46.

Lieberman ES. Nested analysis as a mixed-method strategy for comparative research. American Political Science Review. 2005;99(3):435-52.

Bansal M, Singh K. From leadership to e-leadership: A paradigm shift. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 2005;40(3): 394-409.

Purvanova RK, Bono JE. Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. The Leadership Quarterly. 2009;20(3):343-57.

King N. Template analysis; 1998.