Superior Role of Human Resource Development Climate and Its Impact on Job Attitudes
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade,
According to the extant literature in the context of human resource management (HRM), the preeminent role of human resource development (HRD) climate on employees’ job attitudes is irrefutable. This study aims to determine the effect of HRD climate on job attitudes, including positive and negative ones. The proposed model consists of five latent variables which are HRD climate as an exogenous variable and work engagement, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) as endogenous variables. The authors use a quantitative method involving questionnaire distribution among employees in different private banks located in Tehran (Capital city of Iran). Among distributed questionnaires, 384 were retrieved. To obtain the results, structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was applied. Findings supported the notion that HRD climate has a significant determination on job attitudes. Among them, determination of HRD climate on work engagement and organizational commitment is remarkable. Also, HRD climate had a positive role in increasing OCBs and reduction in negative job attitudes. The results will be practical for academics in the field of HRM. It is worthwhile mentioning that there will be managerial implications for the managers in the Iranian private banking industry and results provide initial insights for managers on how to increase the sense of organizational commitment and work engagement as defined task duties among employees within the Iranian private banking industry. Besides, the results will be pragmatic for managers for injecting and burgeoning the sense of citizenship behaviors and diminution of counterproductive work behaviors to increase profitability, revenue, return on investment (ROI), and productivity, also avoiding stagnation in the environmental workplace of the Iranian private banking industry.
- HRD climate
- job attitudes
- structural equation modeling.
How to Cite
Khiabani MM, Abdizadeh M, Baroto MB. Identifying the ımpact of spiritual leadership on organizational citizenship behavior in the ıranian healthcare ındustry. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade; 2016.
Noe RA, Hollenbeck JR, Gerhart B, Wright PM. Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage: Irwin Chicago, IL; 1997.
Tsui AS, Gomez-Mejia LR. Evaluating human resource effectiveness. Human Resource Management: Evolving Roles and Responsibilities. Washington, DC: BNA; 1988.
Sasirekha A, Ashok J. A study on HRD climate in a public sector cement company-An empirical study. Life Science Journal. 2013;10(5s).
Pareek U, Purohit S. Training Instruments in HRD and OD: McGraw Hill; 2011.
Ewis MZ. The role of human resources development climate in building positive job attitudes and extra-role behaviors. International Journal of Business and Management. 2015a;10(5):153. Available:https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v10n5p153
Benjamin A, David I. Human resource development climate and employee commitment in recapitalized Nigerian banks. International Journal of Business and Management. 2012a;7(5): 91. Available:https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n5p91
Kanten P, Ülker FE. The effect of organizational climate on counter productive behaviors: An empirical study on the employees of manufacturing enterprises. The Macrotheme Review. 2013;2(4):144-160.
Benjamin A, David I. Human resource development climate and employee commitment in recapitalized Nigerian banks. International Journal of Business and Management. 2012b;7(5):91. Available:https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n591
Rao BP. Personnel management and ındustrial relations in banking ındustry: A study of State Bank of Hyderabad: Mittal Publications; 1993.
Khandelwal AK. Human resources development in banks: South Asia Books; 1988.
Hewitt A. 2015 trends in global employee engagement. Aon Hewitt Corp. 2012; 18.
Gratton L. Living strategy: Putting people at the heart of corporate purpose: FT Press; 2000.
Covey S. The 7 habits of highly effective people. Revised ed: Free Press: New York, NY; 2004.
Bakker AB, Schaufeli WB. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2008; 29(2):147-154. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/job.515
Harter JK, Schmidt FL, Hayes TL. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87(2):268. Available:https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268
Thorbjørnsen H, Supphellen M. Determinants of core value behavior in service brands. Journal of Services Marketing. 2011;25(1):68-76. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/08876041111107078
Ashok Khurana PKHLS. Human Resource Management: Vk Publications; 2008.
Haslinda A. Evolving terms of human resource management and development. The Journal of International Social Research. 2009;2(9):180-186.
Blake RR. Memories of HRD. Training and Development. 1995;49(3):22-28.
DeSimone RL, Werner JM, Harris DM. Human resource development; 2002.
Stead V, Lee M. Inter-cultural perspectives on HRD in Stewart, J. and Mc Goldrick, J.(eds) Human Resource Development: Perspectives, Strategies and Practice: London: Prentice Hall; 1996.
Nadler L. Developing Human Resources; 1970.
McGuire D. Foundations of human resource development. D. McGuire, K., & Jorgensen, KM Sage Publications; 2011. Available:https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446251065.n1
Rao TV. Integrated human resources development systems; 1985.
Mittal S. HRD climate in public & private sector banks. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 2013b;49(1):123.
Rao T, Abraham E. HRD climate in organizations. Readings in Human Resource development, Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. 1986; 36-45.
Joyce WF, Slocum JW. Collective climate: Agreement as a basis for defining aggregate climates in organizations. Academy of Management Journal. 1984; 27(4):721-742. Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/255875 https://doi.org/10.5465/255875
Srimannarayana M. Human resources development climate in India. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 2008;248-255.
Mittal S. HRD climate in public & private sector banks. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 2013a;123-131.
Solkhe A, Chaudhary N. HRD climate and job satisfaction: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Computing and Business Research. 2011;2(2):1-20.
Rao T, Abraham E. HRD climate in Indian organizations. TV Rao Readings in HRD, Reprint; 1999.
Meyer J, Allen J. Commitment in the workplace. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications; 1997.
Giles P. The ımpact of adult degree-completion programs on the organizational climate of Christian Colleges and Universities: ERIC; 2010.
Heyart B. The role of organizational climate and culture in service encounters. Wayne State Unıversıty; 2011.
Bennett RJ, Robinson SL. Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of applied psychology. 2000;85(3):349. Available:https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.349
Kahn WA. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal. 1990;33(4):692-724. Available:https://doi.org/10.5465/256287 Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/256287
Andrew OC, Sofian S. Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;40:498-508. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.222
Schaufeli WB, Martinez IM, Pinto AM, Salanova M, Bakker AB. Burnout and engagement in university students a cross-national study. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology. 2002;33(5):464-481. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033005003
Celik S, Dedeoglu BB, Inanir A. Relationship between ethical leadership, organizational commitment and job satisfaction at hotel organizations/otel ısletmelerinde etik liderlik, örgütsel baglilik ve ıs tatmini arasindaki ıliski. Ege Akademik Bakis. 2015;15(1):53. Available:https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.2015117999
Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Paine JB, Bachrach DG. Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of management. 2000;26(3):513-563. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600307
Addae HM, Praveen Parboteeah K, Velinor N. Role stressors and organizational commitment: Public sector employment in St Lucia. International Journal of Manpower. 2008;29(6):567-582. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720810904220
Gohar FR, Bashir M, Abrar M, Asghar F. Effect of psychological empowerment, distributive justice and job autonomy on organizational commitment. Business and Management. 2015;7(1).
Wasti SA. Commitment profiles: Combinations of organizational commitment forms and job outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2005; 67(2):290-308. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.07.002
Meyer JP, Allen NJ. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource manage-ment review. 1991;1(1):61-89. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z
Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topolnytsky L. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2002;61(1):20-52. Available:https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842
Solinger ON, Van Olffen W, Roe RA. Beyond the three-component model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2008;93(1):70. Available:https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.70
Organ DW. Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome: Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com; 1988.
Appelbaum S, Bartolomucci N, Beaumier E, Boulanger J, Corrigan R, Doré I, Serroni C. Organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of culture, leadership and trust. Management Decision. 2004;42(1):13-40. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740410504412
Bolino MC, Turnley WH. Going the extra mile: Cultivating and managing employee citizenship behavior. The Academy of Management Executive. 2003;17(3):60-71. Available:https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2003.10954754
Barroso Castro C, Martín Armario E, Martín Ruiz D. The influence of employee organizational citizenship behavior on customer loyalty. International Journal of Service İndustry Management. 2004;15(1): 27-53. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230410523321
Netemeyer RG, Boles JS, McKee DO, McMurrian R. An investigation into the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors in a personal selling context. The Journal of Marketing. 1997;85- 98. Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/1251791 Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299706100306
Organ DW, Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences: Sage Publications; 2005.
Bienstock CC, DeMoranville CW, Smith RK. Organizational citizenship behavior and service quality. Journal of Services Marketing. 2003;17(4):357-378. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040310482775
Murphy G, Athanasou J, King N. Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviour: A study of Australian human-service professionals. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 2002;17(4):287-297. Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940210428092
Owen FA, Pappalardo SJ, Sale CA. Organizational citizenship behaviour: Proposal for a new dimension in counsellor education. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy/Revue canadienne de counseling et de psychothérapie. 2007;34(2).
Organ DW, Ryan K. A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology. 1995; 48(4):775-802. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01781.x
Schnake M, Cochran D, Dumler M. Encouraging organizational citizenship: The effects of job satisfaction, perceived equity and leadership. Journal of Managerial İssues. 1995;209-221.
Salehzadeh R, Shahin A, Kazemi A, Shaemi Barzoki A, Sheard G. Is organizational citizenship behavior an attractive behavior for managers? A Kano model approach. Journal of Management Development. 2015;34(5). Available:https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-09-2013-0114
Organ D. The applied psychology of work behavior: A book of reading. USA: Richard D. Irwin, Inc; 1991.
Redman T, Snape E. I to wed: The role of consciousness transformation in compassion and Altruism. Journal of Management Studies. 2005;42(2):2200-2380.
Konovsky MA, Organ DW. Dispositional and contextual determinants of organiza-tional citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior; 1996. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199605)17:3<253::AID-JOB747>3.0.CO;2-Q
Modassir A, Singh T. Relationship of emotional intelligence with transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Leader-ship Studies. 2008;4(1):3-21.
Borman WC, Penner LA, Allen TD, Motowidlo SJ. Personality predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 2001;9(1‐2):52-69. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00163
Griffin RW, Lopez YP. “Bad behavior” in organizations: A review and typology for future research. Journal of Management, 2005;31(6):988-1005. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279942
Kaplan HB. Self-attitudes and deviant behavior: Goodyear; 1975.
Spector PE, Fox S. The stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behavior; 2005.
Robinson SL, Bennett RJ. A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multi-dimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal. 1995;38(2):555-572. Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/256693 Available:https://doi.org/10.5465/256693
Chen PY, Spector PE. Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 1992;65(3): 177-184. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1992.tb00495.x
Spector PE, Fox S, Penney LM, Bruursema K, Goh A, Kessler S. The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal? Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2006;68(3):446-460. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.10.005
Ansari ME, Maleki S, Mazraeh S, Arab-Khazaeli H. Individual, job, and organizational predictors of counter-productive work behavior. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2013; 3(4):74-86.
Neuman JH, Baron RA. Aggression in the workplace. Antisocial behavior in organizations. 1997;37:67.
Payne BK, Gainey RR. Ancillary consequences of employee theft. Journal of Criminal Justice. 2004;32(1):63-73. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2003.10.005
Mustaine EE, Tewksbury R. Workplace theft: An analysis of student-employee offenders and job attributes. American Journal of Criminal Justice. 2002;27(1): 111-127. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02898973
Greenberg J. Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1990;75(5):561. Available:https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.5.561
Johns G. Contemporary research on absence from work: Correlates, causes and consequences. International Review of İndustrial and Organizational Psychology. 1997;12:115-174.
Ludwig TD, Frazier CB. Employee engagement and organizational behavior management. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. 2012;32(1):75- 82. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2011.619439
Luthans F, Youssef CM, Rawski SL. A tale of two paradigms: The impact of psycho-logical capital and reinforcing feedback on problem solving and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. 2011;31(4):333-350. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2011.619421
Skinner BF. About behaviorism. Alfred A: Knopf, New York; 1974.
Perrin T. The 2003 Towers Perrin talent report: Working today: Understanding what drives employee engagement: Stamford, CT; 2003.
Schaufeli WB, Salanova M, González-Romá V, Bakker AB. The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2002;3(1): 71-92. Available:https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. psychometrika, 1951;16(3):297-334. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555
Nunnally JC, Bernstein I. Psychometric theory (McGraw-Hill Series in Psychology) (Vol. 3): McGraw-Hill New York; 1994.
Coakes SJ, Steed L. SPSS: Analysis without anguish using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2009.
Kaiser HF. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika. 1974;39(1):31-36. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291575
Anderson JC, Gerbing DW. Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin. 1988;103(3): 411. Available:https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
Blunch N. Introduction to structural equation modeling using IBM SPSS statistics and AMOS: Sage; 2012.
Churchill Jr. GA. A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research. 1979;64-73. Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/3150876 Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/002224377901600110
Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming: Routledge; 2016.
Bagozzi RP, Yi Y. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 1988; 16(1):74-94. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327
Hair J, Anderson R, Tatham D, Black W. Multivariate data analysis with readings. Engelwood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc; 1995.
Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unob-servable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research. 1981;39-50. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104 Available:https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312
Gaskin J. Validity master. Stats Tools Package; 2012. Available:http://statwiki. kolobkreations. com. Available:https://doi.org/10.1021/cm301435j
Gaskin J. Validity Master, stats tools package; 2012.
Brown T. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford. Browne, MW, & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model t. KA Bollen & JS Long; 2006. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/00036810600603377
Hatcher L. A step-by-step approach to using SAS for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Publishing, SAS Institute, Inc; 1994.
Albright JJ. Confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS, LISREL, and MPLUS. The Trustees of Indiana University. USA; 2006. Available:http://www. iub. edu/~ statmath/stat/all/cfa/cfa2008. pdf
Ewis MZ. The role of human resources development climate in building positive job attitudes and extra-role behaviors. International Journal of Business and Management. 2015b;10(5):153. Available:https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v10n5p153
Ludwig TD, Frazier CB. Employee engagement and organizational behavior management Integrating Organizational Behavior Management with Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2013;143-150 Routledge.
Livote EE, Wyka KE. Introduction to structural equation modeling using SPSS and AMOS. Niels J. Blunch. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2008;270. $39.95: Taylor & Francis; 2009. Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510903008345
MacKinnon D. Multivariate applications series. Introduction to statistical mediation analysis: New York: Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2008.
Abstract View: 314 times
PDF Download: 289 times