Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cereals Production and Cross-border Trade on Food Security in Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis between 1986 and 2017

Fatima Abdullahi Shettima, Saheed Zakaree, Suleiman Sa’ad, Yakaka Abdulhlahi Shettima

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i230189

This study aims to examine the impact of cereals production and cross-border trade on food security in Nigeria between 1986 and 2017. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) econometric technique was employed to analyze the time series secondary data sourced from World Bank Development Indicators, 2017 in order to explain the relationship between food security and the cereal production and cross-border trade. The findings of this study reveal that both in short-run and long-run estimation of error correction model (ECM), cereal domestic production, cereal exports and cereal imports have significant impact on the food security. Accordingly, cereal domestic production and cereal imports have a positive sign, which implies that an increase in cereal domestic production and cereal imports influence food security. While, cereal exports have a negative sign, which suggest that Nigeria as a nation is experiencing deficit in cereal production and therefore, the little quantity produced and exported posit a treat to food security. Based on the findings of this study, it is therefore recommended that policy formulation such as government subsidies in the agricultural sector and any other intervention programmes that will encourage an increase in domestic cereal production as well as policy formulation that will not totally discourage cereal importation should be implemented since its impact on food security is positive. This can be achieved through trade liberalization. On one hand, in as much as cereal export have significant impact on food security; government should be mindful that policy formulation on cereal exports should take into consideration the level of domestic cereal production and consequently its negative impact on food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inclination towards Online Shopping - A Changing Trend among the Consumers

Manorama Devi, Leena Das, Moonty Baruah

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i230190

Shopping was once perceived as an activity of going out, exploring various stores and shops across the town, shifting through a myriad of options and finally settling down to purchase a product with full satisfaction. Now that the technology is skillfully trying to make a person think smartly, without exerting much physical energy, we see that even shopping has been engulfed under grip of changing lifestyle. With online shopping spreading its wings gradually, the experience of ‘touch and feel’ concept is slowly fading among the consumers. Online shopping or electronic shopping is a part of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the internet. A survey was conducted in the Jorhat town of Assam to know the online shopping scenario among the consumers with the objective to identify the category of population inclined for online shopping and the factors influencing the consumers for online shopping. For the present research work, 120 samples were selected randomly from four wards of municipality area and a multistage stratified random sampling method was adopted in order to select representative sample. The findings of the study revealed that the young generations are very active in the activities of online shopping and most of them are females. The results of the study have given detailed information regarding the change in shopping behaviour of the consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Income (Including Minimum Wage); Comparison of Societies as Studied by a Molecular-Dynamics Algorithm and Analytical Techniques

Peter Stallinga

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i230191

In this research we tried to answer the question: How to optimize the total production of economy. For finding the answer we used two postulates: First, a worker is incentivated to work if it pays off. When in the income ranking the neighbor below earns less and the one above earns more the worker will work harder and produce more. The productivity of the worker is proportional to this ’derivative’ in the income curve. (Note: a worker’s salary is not assumed necessarily proportional to his productivity). The second postulate depends on who is in control of the production process. In highly-simplified naming: In capitalism, the capital takes the decisions, in a democracy the people do, by vote. We also simulated a dictatorial system in which decisions can be imposed
by a (benevolent) dictator.

We used these ingredients in evolutionary computation. Starting with an arbitrary initial distribution, we make random small changes to it and if the total production increases, a decision will be made whether to implement these changes. This procedure is repeated until the distribution is stable. Remarkably, the outcomes for ’democracy’ and ’capitalism’ are similar. Capitalism and democracy go hand-in-hand together: One person getting all income, two people working, and most not working and not receiving. These results are also analytically found.

In ’communism’, nobody works and everybody perishes. In a ’dictatorial’ system we can optimize production for the benefit of the people, and come to the conclusion that the introduction of minimum wages is beneficial, and these should be 50% of the average income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Check-in Services and Passengers’ Impression of Airports in South-south Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria

Eze, Felix John, Inyang, Juliet John

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i230192

The study examined check-in service quality attributes and passengers' impression of airports in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The research was motivated by the desire to know how well passengers' impression of Nigerian airport service quality have been shaped by four check-in service attributes (competence of staff, politeness of staff, waiting time at check-in counters and interactions with passengers). The study used stratified random sampling to survey four hundred passengers at Port Harcourt International Airport and Margaret Ekpo International Airport. Data were collected using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The instrument was content-validated, while the Cronbach Alpha coefficient for the constructs gave reliability of 96.9 per cent. The data generated were analysed using mean rating and multiple linear regression analysis. The findings revealed that politeness of staff, waiting time at check-in counters and interactions with passengers significantly influenced passengers' impression of airports in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study recommended that Airport management should regularly train frontline staff on customer service communication skills; provide feedback mechanisms such as voice recorders and CCTV cameras to check front-line interactions with passengers, and automate the check-in process as is obtainable in developed countries to reduce the waiting time at check-in counters. These will ensure and improve passengers’ perception and patronage of aviation services in the zone, locally and internationally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infrastructure Investment as a Panacea for Sustainable Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Granger Causality Tests Analysis

Cyprian Clement Abur

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2019/v25i230193

This paper employed Granger causality tests amid infrastructure spending, economic growth, and employment in Nigeria for the period 1960-2017 using vector autoregression (VAR) model. The result showed a strong causality between infrastructure investment and economic growth in Nigeria. Findings of the study shows a strong underlying relationship between e infrastructure investment and job creation. Economic growth seems to be the key drivers of government jobs and that the private sector jobs drives growth, however, public jobs have not been able to translates into additional jobs in the economy. The bounds test results specify the presence of long-run equilibrium relationship between infrastructure investment, economic growth, job creation and output thereby providing a theoretical underpinning for the empirical results.