Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Bank Charges on Bank's Customers Saving and Income in Nigeria

Ridwan Dairo, Tonuchi E. Joseph

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i330331

Effective saving mobilization by the deposit money banks is a perquisite to achieve the macroeconomic objectives of price stability, full sustainable economic growth, full employment, and exchange rate stability. This study therefore investigates effect of bank charges on saving and income of bank’s customers in Nigeria. The study sampled 180 bank customers in Lagos state, and it was revealed that excessive bank charges is not only hindering effective saving mobilization in the country but also the financial inclusion policy of the Central Bank of Nigeria. It was further discovered that excessive bank charges are of greater concern to small savers like students and self-employed customers. The study therefore concludes that excessive and indiscriminate bank charges does not only cause more than 30 percent of Nigerian bank customers to switch to other banks but impacts their saving culture and income.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Government Revenue in the Extractive Industry in Tanzania

Semboja Haji Hatibu Haji

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 12-29
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i330332

Tanzania has not been unique amid the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of economic impact. Since the first case was announced in March 2020, several thousand cases have been confirmed with several hundred deaths (real-time data). There were a number of transmitting factors and effects that exposed Tanzanian national revenue systems to great economic risk if COVID-19 was not well managed. The paper assesses the level of risks on the total government revenue resource systems, government revenue collections from the extractive industries and national expenditure budget performances. This descriptive paper uses results from the HakiRasilimali field research survey, 2020. The paper found high and increasing levels of negative and perceived risks on the government revenue mobilization, collection and utilization due to the existence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority perceived that the COVID-19 pandemic has high levels of risks and negative effects on the national budget expenditure frameworks in medium- and long-term periods. In the short run it is not easy to cut down and stop major recurrent government expenditures in developing economies. The public expenditure resources allocated to the Ministry of Minerals have been increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic to support the on-going mining reforms in Tanzania. Also, the government was compelled to allocate more financial resources to the health sector in order to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and the aftermath, as well as support other most affected sectors. The paper recommends that the best way of preventing and combating the COVID-19 risks and related public health threats or possibilities is to protect and give capacity to socio-economic entities, sectors and actors’ abilities in achieving their desired short-, medium- and long-term objectives. To support a robust health and economic policy response, Tanzania has in its potential fiscal space relative to other East African countries, stable political environment, high international reserves, larger domestic market and favorable mineral commodity price movements. Tanzania has enhanced political preparedness and containment capacity through measures to strengthen detection, surveillance and combating the current COVID-19 pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Place of Women in Places of Decision in the Public and Private Sector: Case of Senegal

Diène Kolly Ousseynou Diouf

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 43-64
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i330334

The issue of greater representation of women in decision-making bodies is a recurrent issue in corporate governance in general and in the management of diversity in particular, which companies are now confronted with. On the other hand, in Senegal, there is little written on the question but a lot of debates and good political intentions.

The purpose of this article is to show from an empirical study that women still have failed to move beyond the "glass ceiling" that prevents them from reaching the highest positions. Through our study, based on a methodology of a qualitative and quantitative nature, we carried out semi-structured interviews (10), then administered questionnaires (60 and 39 selected) to some members of the decision-making bodies of companies in Senegal. .

The results show that preconceived ideas remain far from the reality on the ground. They especially underline that the presence of women in decision-making bodies can have a positive influence on the performance and governance of organizations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Utilization of Donor Funds in Somali Region of Ethiopia

Ali Ahmed Mumin, Olusola Oladeji, Abenet Yohannes

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 65-76
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i330335

Aims: Donor funds play a critical role in the provision of social services and development process in developing countries, however poor utilization of the donor funds has been reported as a major barrier to achieving this. The study investigated the factors that influence the use of donor funds.

Study design: This was a cross-sectional survey using quantitative method. 

Place and duration of study: Jijiga Town of Somali Region between June   and July 2020.

Methodology: Descriptive analysis was done using Relative Importance Index (RII) and Inferential statistics was conducted using correlation analysis and Pearson’s coefficient was performed to examine the effects of the four independent variables (Financial management practice, Human resource capabilities, stakeholder’s participation in planning, coordination and communication and Monitoring and Evaluation) and utilization of the donor- funded projects.

Results: The study found lower utilization rate of donor funds across all the sectors in the region compared to domestic funds with utilization rate for domestic resources ranged from 93%-100% compared with 43% utilization rate for donor funds. All the four predictor variables show positive correlation with utilization of donor funds, p value less than 0.01. Monitoring and Evaluation has the highest correlation, r=0.754, n=79, p=0.0003) followed by Stakeholder Participation, r=0.695, n=79, p=0.0005), Human Resource Capabilities r=0.654, n=79, p=0.0004) and Financial Management Practice with r=0.634, n=79, p=0.0005).

Conclusion: The study reaffirmed the poor utilization of donor-funds in most developing countries and the associated factors which are major barriers to socio-economic development and will contribute to knowledge management in the region and help all stakeholders in improving utilization of donor funds.

Open Access Case study

A Primary Study on the Practical Implementation Practices and Issues of Community Contracting Protocol in Dewathang Gewog, Samdrup Jongkhar Bhutan

Pema Wangchuk

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i330333

Recently, media reports of community contracts have increased due to problems with the implementation of the Community Contracting Protocols (CCP) among the policymakers and local government officials in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Most of the media reported that it played a crucial role in promoting economic and social development in the community, but also reported common challenges related to project failures and other technical difficulties. The Dewathang Gewog(Block) under Samdrup Jongkhar Dzongkhag(district), Eastern Bhutan is one of the active CCP implementers in the country. As a result, the gewog officials and community contractors have been confronted with a series of challenges and difficulties like most other Gewogs faced in Bhutan. However, the claims must be meticulously validated through academic research and inform the public accordingly because they may carry incomplete assumptions of the CCP in the country. Few or no previous study has been conducted in Bhutan so far using statistical tests to assess the practice and implementation issues of the CCP. This study focuses on identifying the key implementation challenges of the CCP in the Gewog. The Gewog had carried out several community projects over the past three years (2018-2020). The study was carried out within three months. The target population size was 41, determined from the seven dispersed project sites. Only people who were mainly involved in the implementation of the community projects in the last three years were considered. By following the cluster random sampling process, the sample size(30) was selected as the respondents for the study. Data were collected from them through a survey and face-to-face interview with the key informants. The hypotheses were tested with a chi-square test based on data obtained from the respondents and processed with Microsoft Excel. The results were presented in tabular and graphical form with interpretations for better understanding. The study found that Gewog officials and community groups faced challenges such as project delays, lack of coordination, poor monitoring and supervision, cost overruns. In addition, the study also found out that the Gewog office has ensured community participation through CCP despite the challenges. Strict performance monitoring (tracking progress), capacity building and problem-solving through field visits to identify obstacles are the possible recommendations proposed in the study. The study also recommends that the relevant agencies review the CCP as appropriate and make it feasible and enforceable.